The Barbed Wire - January 5, 2024

January 5, 2024
RCRC’s 2023 Rural Recap Now Available!
CalRecycle Releases Draft SB 54 Single Use Packaging Regulations and Packaging Forms Deemed to Be Recyclable or Compostable
Congress Members Panetta and Lofgren Support Monterey County Appeal to FEMA for Emergency Repairs Reimbursement 
A Look at the Federal Fiscal Landscape of 2024 
ICYMI: SPECIAL FEATURE! The Convergence of Local Government SaaS Spending and Budgetary Constraints: Actionable Strategies for the Road Ahead

RCRC’s 2023 Rural Recap Now Available!

The Rural Recap is prepared for the RCRC Board of Directors to highlight significant actions taken on issues impacting California’s rural counties. In addition, it outlines key advocacy efforts engaged in by RCRC staff on behalf of California's rural communities as well as an informational piece during legislative visits and events with other organizations throughout the year. Read the 2023 Rural Recap here

With the California State Legislature’s return to Sacramento on January 3rd, convening the second year of the 2023-2024 session, RCRC’s advocacy efforts are again redirected to legislative initiatives. Watch for updates on legislation in the “Bill of the Week” feature, returning to the Barbed Wire in coming weeks.  

The 2023 Rural Recap is available in hardcopy, while supplies last. To request a hardcopy of the Rural Recap, email, include your name, mailing address, and desired quantity. 

CalRecycle Releases Draft SB 54 Single Use Packaging Regulations and Packaging Forms Deemed to Be Recyclable or Compostable

On December 28, CalRecycle released long-anticipated SB 54 draft regulations for public review.  SB 54 (Allen) of 2022 requires manufacturers of single use packaging and food service ware to take responsibility for the management and recycling of the products they introduce into the stream of commerce. 

The draft regulatory text can be found here.  CalRecycle has not yet initiated the formal rulemaking process, but is expected to do so in the near future.  That action will trigger a 45-day comment period during which RCRC and other stakeholders will be able to provide formal comments, express concerns, and suggest modifications to the proposed regulations. 

As RCRC previously noted: 

“SB 54 marks a tremendous paradigm shift for solid waste management in California, where local governments have traditionally borne the full responsibility for achieving the state’s solid waste management and recycling directives.    

“In particular, SB 54 requires single use packaging manufacturers to ensure that covered material is recyclable or compostable, create and fund end markets, and bear responsibility for costs incurred by local agencies and recycling service providers associated with the collection, storage, handling, and marketing of those products.  The measure is clear that the Legislature intends to ensure that local jurisdictions will be made financially whole for any new costs incurred associated with the measure.”  

Pursuant to SB 54, CalRecycle was required to determine what categories of covered materials are recyclable and compostable.  Under Public Resources Code Section 42060.5, all local jurisdictions must include those covered materials determined to be recyclable and compostable in their collection and recycling/composting programs, unless they receive an exemption or extension from CalRecycle.  Locals are not precluded from collecting additional materials not included on that list.  Importantly, those 19 counties with fewer than 70,000 residents (and cities within those counties) may exempt themselves from this requirement.   

RCRC is currently reviewing the draft regulations and will be actively soliciting feedback from counties to guide its advocacy efforts on the proposal.  While CalRecycle did integrate some changes RCRC suggested in pre-regulatory workshops, RCRC is concerned that the scope of the proposed enforcement provisions in the draft regulations are inconsistent with and likely exceed the authority provided by SB 54. 

For more information, contact RCRC Senior Policy Advocate, John Kennedy

Congress Members Panetta and Lofgren Support Monterey County Appeal to FEMA for Emergency Repairs Reimbursement 

On December 22nd, U.S. Representatives Jimmy Panetta (D-Carmel Valley) and Zoe Lofgren (D-Monterey County) wrote a letter to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in support of Monterey County’s appeal of the agency’s decision to deny more than $1.5 million in reimbursements for the County’s emergency road and culvert repairs following the 2020 Carmel Fire. 

The 2020 Carmel Fire, a federally declared disaster, burned a total of 6,905 acres, destroying 73 structures and damaging seven more.  The fire burned hot enough to make soils water-repellant, therefore increasing runoff, and causing road culverts to warp.  Monterey County conducted emergency repair and replacement of culverts and guard railings on Cachagua Road due to ongoing risks to the community.  FEMA has determined that repairs made to the damaged Cachagua Road were not eligible for reimbursement due to Endangered Species Act (ESA) violations.  In support of Monterey County’s appeal, the representatives’ letter asserts that “[FEMA’s] determination fails to take into consideration the full circumstances under which repairs were made and the lack of impact on any species following the fires’ destruction”. Storms struck the area shortly after the fires which, absent repairs, likely would have caused greater damage, loss of life and property, and increased FEMA reimbursement claims.

A Look at the Federal Fiscal Landscape of 2024 

As the first appropriations deadline of January 19 approaches, a short-term extension has been granted for four out of the twelve appropriations bills, covering Agriculture, Energy & Water, Military Construction-VA, and Transportation-HUD. Failure to take further action by this date could lead to a partial government shutdown for agencies and programs funded by these bills. Speaker Johnson has expressed a preference for passing a full-year continuing resolution through September 30 if individual appropriations bills cannot be enacted by the deadline. Following closely is the second appropriations deadline on February 2, affecting agencies and programs under the remaining eight appropriations bills, including Commerce-Justice-Science, Defense, Financial Services-General Government, Homeland Security, Interior, Labor-HHS-Education, Legislative Branch, and State-Foreign Operations. The President's Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2025 is anticipated in the first quarter, necessitating a shift in appropriations focus to the 2025 fiscal year. If an agreement on funding for Fiscal Year 2024 is not reached by January 19 or February 2, the likelihood of a long-term continuing resolution becomes increasingly plausible. 

In other matters, during November 2023, the Farm Bill was extended for one year until September 30, 2024. Despite various hearings and discussions over the previous year, no formal legislation for a new Farm Bill has been proposed; however, draft text is expected early this year.  Turning attention to the Secure And Fair Enforcement Regulation (SAFER) Banking Act (S. 2860), which would ensure that legal cannabis businesses would have access to critical banking and financial services, Majority Leader Schumer aims to bring the bill to a full Senate vote. However, challenges have arisen due to disagreements over criminal justice reform provisions and law enforcement agencies' access to information. These hurdles pose additional challenges for the Senate in advancing the bill this year, and resistance is expected.

ICYMI: SPECIAL FEATURE! The Convergence of Local Government SaaS Spending and Budgetary Constraints: Actionable Strategies for the Road Ahead

In the current fiscal climate, local governments are grappling with a pressing challenge: managing escalating Software as a Service (SaaS) expenditures against a backdrop of tightening budgets. Two pivotal trends are shaping this landscape: a dramatic and forecasted uptick in SaaS spending, coupled with local governments bracing for tighter budgets due to economic downturns, unfunded mandates, and rising labor costs. In this special feature to the Barbed Wire, Nevada County Information & General Services Agency Director, Steve Monaghan, breaks down this trend and provides six strategies for local governments to effectively manage SaaS management. Read the article here.

The views and opinions expressed in this feature article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or positions of the Rural County Representatives of California or its affiliates.


Announcements regarding hearings, grants, and public comment notices of importance to California's rural counties.


Request for Proposal - Feasibility Study Analysis and Business Management Plan for a Business Incubator

The Siskiyou Economic Development Council (SEDC) is seeking proposals from qualified professionals to complete a feasibility study, analysis, and potential implementation plan for a business incubator to be located in Yreka, California. The final documents will be leveraged in future planning to assist and support the development and growth of small business entrepreneurs within Yreka and throughout the Siskiyou County region.

This project is being funded by a grant from the US Department of Commerce, Economic Development Administration (EDA) and the final report(s) will need to comply accordingly. The contract will not exceed a total amount of $65,000 and will be completed by no later than June 17, 2024. The use of Federal funds requires that this contract adheres to all 2CFR 200 regulations. The successful bidder must be registered and active with

The deadline for proposal submission is January 31, 2024View the RFP here. For more information about Siskiyou Economic Development Council, visit their website here.


CARB to Hold Local Government Training Webinar on Advanced Clean Fleets Regulations

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) is hosting an online training webinar on the new Advanced Clean Fleets (ACF) regulations January 17th. The ACF regulations apply to local government agencies (among others) and affect medium- and heavy-duty on-road vehicles with a gross vehicle weight greater than 8,500 pounds, as well as off-road yard tractors. Interested stakeholders are encouraged to submit their questions in advance (by January 15, 2024). Registration is limited.

Additionally, CARB announced on December 28, 2023, that it does not plan to take enforcement action on the drayage or high priority fleet provisions of the ACF regulation until the U.S. EPA grants a preemption waiver applicable to those regulatory provisions or determines a waiver is not necessary. However, this enforcement discretion does not apply to State and Local Government Fleets. More information can be found on the ACF Regulation and Advisories page.

WHAT: Overview of ACF regulations, such as who is affected and upcoming compliance requirements. Fact sheets are available here
WHEN: January 17, 2024, 9am – 11am.
WHERE: Virtual via Zoom, register here

For more information, please visit CARB’s TruckStop webpage to learn more about heavy-duty vehicle requirements; webinar questions can be directed to  

Upcoming CCE Preservation Program Data and Reporting Roundtable Webinar

The Community Care Expansion (CCE) Program is hosting a Preservation Program Data and Reporting Roundtable Webinar, designed to provide counties with essential details about the draft program data metrics, and to gather feedback. Registration will close by 5:00 PM PST on January 8th.

Use the links below to register for your preferred roundtable session.

Tuesday, January 9 - 9:00 AM Pacific Register Here
Tuesday, January 9 - 2:00 PM Pacific Register Here
Thursday, January 11 - 9:00 AM Pacific Register Here


Common Threads North 2024 Dinner and Awards to Honor Six Women in Agriculture from RCRC Member Counites - Tickets on Sale Now

Join Common Threads North on Wednesday, April 3rd as they celebrate and honor women in agriculture. The six 2024 Common Threads North Honorees are all members of RCRC counties: Colleen Cecil (Glenn County); Terry Dereniuk (Lake County); Carol Dobbas (Sierra County); Kelli Evans (Sutter County); Robin Flournoy (Placer County); and Sue Knox (Tehama County). 


Sponsorships for the 2024 Common Threads North Dinner & Awards are now being accepted. For additional information about the dinner and awards, or to learn about sponsorship opportunities, visit the Common Threads North website here or contact the Butte Ag Foundation at (530) 533-1473.


Registration Now Open for Calforests 2024 FSI Conference, February 26-27

Register today for the California Forestry Association (Calforests) Forestry Strategies and Innovations (FSI) Conference 2024, where Calforests will bring together leaders from California’s public, private, nonprofit, tribal, economic, and environmental sectors to spark critical conversations about forest management, wildfire protection, and sustainability.

Attendees have the chance to: 

  • Collectively evaluate and improve best practices
  • Share important knowledge and innovations
  • Engage with key stakeholders to find out how to work collaboratively

Date: February 26-27, 2024
Location: Sacramento

See here for more information and register today.


$1.5 Billion Available through the 2024 RAISE Grant Program

The U.S. Department of Transportation has published a Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) for $1.5 billion in grant funding through the Rebuilding American Infrastructure with Sustainability and Equity (RAISE) discretionary grant program for 2024. The program helps communities around the country carry out projects with significant local or regional impact. RAISE discretionary grants help project sponsors at the state and local levels, including municipalities, Tribal governments, counties, and others complete critical freight and passenger transportation infrastructure projects. The eligibility requirements of RAISE allow project sponsors to obtain funding for projects that may be harder to support through other U.S. DOT grant programs. For recent examples of funded projects, see the list of 2023 awarded projects here.

RAISE projects are reviewed and evaluated on statutory criteria of safety, environmental sustainability, quality of life, mobility and community connectivity, economic competitiveness and opportunity including tourism, state of good repair, partnership and collaboration, and innovation. Projects designated “RCN Program Extra” during the new FY 2023 Reconnecting Communities and Neighborhoods (RCN) Program competition and submitted for consideration under the FY 2024 RAISE NOFO will have a greater opportunity to be advanced during the FY 2024 RAISE evaluation process, as described in the NOFO.  

Half of the funding will go to projects in rural areas, and half of the funding will go to projects in urban areas. At least $15 million in funding is guaranteed to go towards projects located in Areas of Persistent Poverty or Historically Disadvantaged Communities, and projects located in these areas will be eligible for up to 100 percent federal cost share, as directed by Congress in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law. 

As in previous years, the Department is encouraging applicants to consider how their projects can address climate change, ensure racial equity, and remove barriers to opportunity. The Department also intends to use the RAISE program to support lowering costs for household budgets, wealth creation and the creation of good-paying jobs with the free and fair choice to join a union, the incorporation of strong labor standards, and training and placement programs, especially registered apprenticeships. 

The NOFO is available here. The deadline for applications is 11:59 PM EST on February 28, 2024, and selections will be announced no later than June 27, 2024.


HCD Launches New Codes and Standards Online Services Portal

The California Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) has launched a new, user-friendly online portal — Codes and Standards Online Services (C&S OS). C&S OS is designed for the public, HCD business partners, and Codes and Standards customers to access many HCD services online. 

C&S OS features include: 

  • Track the status of your application or complaint
  • Submit some mobilehome permit and registration and titling applications online – anytime, from anywhere
  • No additional fees required
  • Google Translate™ available in several languages

With C&S OS, you can now:

  • Apply for duplicate title and registration cards 
  • Update registered and legal owner addresses
  • Apply for alteration permits and insignia inspections
  • Request a technical service inspection
  • And more!

More services are coming soon! Check the HCD website often for new services and application types. C&S OS can be accessed through the HCD website:

For more information, see Information Bulletin 2023-01.

Questions? Please email


Access the State Grants Portal for a Multitude of Funding Opportunities

Billions of dollars are up for grabs to public agencies and other entities, including tribes and businesses. Grant seekers can access a centralized portal of grant and loan opportunities here, or sign up to receive new grant opportunities delivered straight to your inbox


Announcements regarding key staffing changes of importance to California's rural counties.

Hipolito Angel Cerros, of Lindsay, has been appointed to the 24th District Agricultural Association, Tulare County Fair Board of Directors. Cerros has been Mayor of the City of Lindsay since 2022. He was a Senior Policy Advisor for Dream for America and Community Outreach Specialist for the United We Lead Foundation in 2023. He was a Project Intern for the U.S. Conference of Mayors in 2022. Cerros was a Legislative Intern in the California State Senate in 2022. He is a member of the Tulare County Regional Transit Agency and the East Kaweah Groundwater Sustainability Agency. This position does not require Senate confirmation and there is no compensation. Cerros is a Democrat.  

Rina DiMare, of Clarksburg, has been appointed to the California Exposition and State Fair Board of Directors, where she previously served from 2020 to 2022. DiMare has been a Proprietor at Elevation Ten Winery since 2015. She was a Managing Partner/Owner at Government Strategies Inc. from 2001 to 2015. DiMare was a Consultant and Legislative Assistant in the California State Assembly from 1991 to 1997. She is President of the Clarksburg Winery Collective and a member of the California Winegrape Growers Association. DiMare earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in International Relations and Latin American Studies from California State University, Chico. This position requires Senate confirmation and there is no compensation. DiMare is a Democrat. 

Debra Dommen, of Napa, has been appointed to the 25th District Agricultural Association, Napa Town and Country Fair Board of Directors. Dommen has been Vice President of Government and Industry Affairs at Treasury Wine Estates since 2010. She was Executive Director of Winegrowers of Napa County from 2002 to 2010. Dommen was Senior Consultant for the California State Assembly Select Committee on California’s Wine Industry from 2000 to 2002. She was California Sales Manager for Ravenswood Winery from 1997 to 1999. Dommen was a Sales and Marketing Assistant for Chateau Montelena Winery from 1995 to 1996. She was Retail Sales Manager for Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars from 1994 to 1995. Dommen was a Wine Sales Consultant for Winewrights from 1991 to 1993. She is Chair of WineAmerica and a board member of the Wine Institute, the Napa Chamber of Commerce and the Northern California Chapter Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. Dommen earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from Biola University and a Master of Business Administration degree from Golden Gate University. This position does not require Senate confirmation and there is no compensation. Dommen is a Democrat. 

James “Jay” Epstein, of Ukiah, has been appointed to the 12th District Agricultural Association, Redwood Empire Fair Board of Directors. Epstein has been President of Jay Epstein Insurance Agency Inc., a State Farm Agency, since 2010. He was Agency Intern for State Farm Insurance from 2008 to 2010. Epstein was Co-Founder and Vice President of JL Epstein Inc. dba Leap Lending from 2001 to 2008. He was Vice President of Business Development for the Mountain View Chamber of Commerce in 2008. Epstein was Business Development Manager for Xetus Corporation in 2008. He was Area Sales Manager for Pinnacle Financial from 2005 to 2007. Epstein was Regional Sales Manager for First Source Funding Group from 2004 to 2005. Epstein served at the rank of E-5 in the U.S. Navy from 1989 to 1994. He is a member of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. Epstein earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from the University of Phoenix. This position does not require Senate confirmation and there is no compensation. He is a Democrat.  

Collin Greene, of Santa Barbara, has been appointed to the 19th District Agricultural Association, Santa Barbara Fair and Exposition Board of Directors. Greene has been Chief Financial Officer at ShipHawk since 2017. He was Vice President of Impact Telecom from 2014 to 2017. Greene was Global Finance & Operations Controller at QAD from 2010 to 2014. He was Controller at TMC Communications from 2007 to 2010. Greene earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in History from the University of California, Santa Barbara and a Master of Business Administration degree in International Business from California Lutheran University. This position does not require Senate confirmation and there is no compensation. He is a Democrat.  

James Hill, of Alpine, has been appointed Warden of Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility, where he has been Acting Warden since 2022. Hill served as Warden of the California Institution for Men from 2021 to 2022. He held several positions at Centinela State Prison from 2002 to 2021, including Chief Deputy Warden, Correctional Administrator, Correctional Captain, Correctional Lieutenant, Correctional Sergeant and Correctional Officer. Hill was a Correctional Administrator at Calipatria State Prison in 2018. He was a Correctional Captain at the California Institution for Women from 2014 to 2016. Hill was Vice President of Smallwood Enterprises from 2012 to 2014. He was a Correctional Officer at Salinas Valley State Prison from 2000 to 2002. Hill served in the U.S. Navy from 1992 to 1996. This position does not require Senate confirmation and the compensation is $175,332. Hill is a Republican.

Kevin Hixon, of Springville, has been appointed Warden of North Kern State Prison, where he has been Acting Warden since 2022 and has served in several positions since 2016, including Chief Deputy Administrator, Acting Chief Deputy Administrator and Correctional Administrator. Hixon was a Captain at Kern Valley State Prison from 2013 to 2016. He was a Correctional Lieutenant at the Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison from 2008 to 2013 and a Correctional Sergeant there from 2005 to 2008. Hixon was a Correctional Officer at Deuel Vocational Institution from 2000 to 2002 and at California State Prison, Corcoran from 2002 to 2005. This position does not require Senate confirmation and the compensation is $175,332. Hixon is a Republican. 

M. Scott Lillibridge, of Rocklin, has been reappointed to the California Commission on Disability Access, where he has served since 2018. Lillibridge has been Associate Principal/Assistant Vice President at RICK Engineering Company since 2016. He was Senior Forward Planner at KB Home from 2015 to 2016. Lillibridge was a Land Development Manager at K. Hovnanian Homes from 2013 to 2015. He was Project manager at Marques Pipeline from 2012 to 2013. Lillibridge was a Full Partner at C&L Development Solutions Inc. from 2009 to 2012. He was Land Development Manager at Pardee Homes from 2001 to 2003 and from 2004 to 2009. Lillibridge was Project Manager at KB Home from 2003 to 2004, at Kimley-Horn and Associates from 1999 to 2001 and at RICK Engineering Company from 1990 to 1999. Lillibridge is a member of the American Council of Engineering Companies, American Public Works Association, American Society of Civil Engineers, Urban Land Institute, and Rotary International. This position requires Senate confirmation and the compensation is $100 per diem. Lillibridge is a Republican.

Sydney Tanimoto, of El Dorado Hills, has been appointed Deputy Director of Program Operations in the Division of Rehabilitative Programs at the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, where she has been Chief of the Office of Legislative Affairs since 2021. Tanimoto was a Principal Program Budget Analyst III at the California Department of Finance from 2019 to 2021 and a Finance Budget Analyst there from 2016 to 2019. She was a Staff Services Analyst at the California Department of Social Services from 2015 to 2016. Tanimoto was a Mental Health Services Act Graduate Intern for the County of San Luis Obispo Department of Behavioral Health from 2014 to 2015. She earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in International Studies and Political Science from California State University, Long Beach and a Master of Public Policy degree in Social Policy from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. This position does not require Senate confirmation and the compensation is $166,008. Tanimoto is a Democrat.

Eddie Vegaalban, of Rocklin, has been appointed to the 20th District Agricultural Association, Gold Country Fair Board of Directors. Vegaalban has been a Security Consultant at 3D Visions since 2000. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Physical Education/Pre-Physical Therapy from California State University, Chico. This position does not require Senate confirmation and there is no compensation. Vegaalban is a Republican.

Ryan Youtsey, of Dixon, has been appointed Chief Deputy of Offender Investigations and Screening Division, Board of Parole Hearings at the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, where he has been a Senior Investigator since 2023. Youtsey held several positions at the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Adult Parole Operations from 2007 to 2023, including Parole Administrator, Parole Agent III, Parole Agent II and Parole Agent I. He held several positions at the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Adult Institutions from 2013 to 2015, including Parole Agent II Specialist, Correctional Counselor I and Correctional Officer. Youtsey was a Youth Correctional Counselor at the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Justice from 2005 to 2007. He is a member of the Chicano Correctional Workers Association. Youtsey earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Criminal Justice from Sacramento State University. This position does not require Senate confirmation and the compensation is $160,152. Youtsey is a Democrat.


RCRC press releases and related news clips about RCRC and our member counties. Please note that a subscription may be required to read some external publications.


New cannabis businesses face a years-long queue in California. Lawmakers will weigh cutting the wait – The Hill

California lawmakers are considering SB 508, aiming to streamline the cannabis permitting process, crucial as existing provisional licenses expire in 2026. The bill seeks to expedite licenses by consolidating the environmental review process. 

RCRC Policy Advocate, Sarah Dukett, is featured in this article, emphasizing the need for cannabis permit streamlining efforts proposed by SB 508. Dukett underscores the necessity to expedite the issuance of annual licenses to support legal cannabis farmers and highlights the importance of a more efficient licensing process to combat the illicit cannabis market.


Opinion | How will CA address home insurance market meltdown?  – CalMatters

California faces a dual crisis of a massive state budget deficit and a declining homeowner insurance market. Insurance Commissioner Ricardo Lara is grappling with insurers, like State Farm and Farmers, cutting coverage due to wildfire losses. Lara seeks rule changes allowing future loss estimates and reinsurance costs in premiums, triggering a clash with Consumer Watchdog. While Lara aims to maintain a viable insurance market, critics accuse him of favoring the industry. Changes may lead to increased premiums, impacting homeowners, aspiring buyers, and developers. The situation parallels the broader economic challenges in the state.


Opinion | CA needs to prepare ourselves, environment for wet years – Sacramento Bee

Ellen Hanak, a senior fellow, and Letitia Grenier, Director of the Public Policy Institute of California Water Policy Center provide their insight in this article about California's need to prepare for wet years to come. Climate change intensifies California's droughts and floods, making infrastructure and institutions ill-prepared. Urgent action is needed to address flood risks affecting all 58 counties and $580 billion worth of structures. Planning for wet years is crucial, offering an opportunity to replenish aquifers and store water. Coordination among agencies, improved regulation, and prioritizing low-income communities are essential. A comprehensive wet-year infrastructure plan and streamlined permitting processes are proposed. Environmental considerations and nature-based solutions should be integrated. The unpredictable climate requires readiness for any scenario, emphasizing the need for proactive planning and adaptable infrastructure.